Sources & Definitions
The two major political parties, Republican and Democrat, had different philosophies than they do today. In many ways, their platforms were opposite of what they are today
June 1, 1863 Lincoln declared "that all persons held as slaves are, and henceforward shall be free." It applied only to the “rebel” southern states. In 1865 The 13th Amendment ended slavery across the U.S., and did so in the Constitution as opposed to an executive order so that it would be permanent
Jim Crow Laws
A practice or policy of segregating or discriminating against African Americans, as in public places, public vehicles or employment
The "nadir of American race relations" was the period in the history of the Southern United States from the end of Reconstruction in 1877 through the early 20th century, when racism in the country was worse than in any other period after the American Civil War
Sources & Additional Resources
- “Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress.” U.S. Library of Congress, (History).
- “Black Code.” Encyclopedia Britannica, (United States History).
- “Hayes-Tilden Election.” Public Broadcast Service, (The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow).
- “Henry Ward Beecher Biography.” Biography, (People).
- “History of Federal Voting Rights Laws.” The United States Department of Justice, (Civil Rights Division).
- “Ku Klux Klan.” Southern Poverty Law Center, (Extremist Files).
- Levitt, Justin. “All About Redistricting.” Loyola Law School, Los Angeles.
- “Reconstruction.” Encyclopedia Britannica, (United States history).
- Reicher, Matt. “Black Suffrage in Minnesota, 1868.” Mnopedia.
- Reidy, Joseph P. “Slave Emancipation Through the Prism of Archives Records.” National Archives, (Prologue Magazine).
- Smith, Christi M. “National Equal Rights League (1864-1921).” Black Past.
- “The ‘Three-Fifths’ Compromise.” African American Registry.
- “William T. Sherman.” Civil War Trust.
- Salvatore, Susan Cianci. “Civil Rights in American: Racial Voting Rights.” National Park Service.