Sources & Definitions



The two major political parties, Republican and Democrat, had different philosophies than they do today. In many ways, their platforms were opposite of what they are today

Emancipation Proclamation

June 1, 1863 Lincoln declared "that all persons held as slaves are, and henceforward shall be free." It applied only to the “rebel” southern states. In 1865 The 13th Amendment ended slavery across the U.S., and did so in the Constitution as opposed to an executive order so that it would be permanent

Jim Crow Laws

A practice or policy of segregating or discriminating against African Americans, as in public places, public vehicles or employment

"The Nadir"

The "nadir of American race relations" was the period in the history of the Southern United States from the end of Reconstruction in 1877 through the early 20th century, when racism in the country was worse than in any other period after the American Civil War

Sources & Additional Resources

Web Sources