Sources & Definitions



Preventing (a person or group of people) from having the right to vote.

Perpetual Foreigner

A stereotype from World War II that portrays Asian American and Pacific Islanders as not legitimate Americans and therefore a threat to U.S. national security.

Yellow Peril

A 19th century stereotype that portrayed Chinese immigrants as a dangerous  people who stole jobs from white laborers.

Sources & Additional Resources

Web Sources

Voting Rights.” Asian American Legal Defense Fund.

Chinese-Americans in Minnesota.” Minnesota History Center. Minnesota History Center.

Karen Organization of Minnesota. 

Le, C.N. 2015. "The First Asian Americans" Asian-Nation: The Landscape of Asian America. 

"State of the Asian Pacific Minnesotans: 2010 Census and 2008-2010 American Community Survey Report." Council on Asian Pacific Minnesotans.

Chardon, Phillip. “LA Riots.” South Central History.

Print Sources

Ancheta, Angelo N. Race, Rights, and the Asian American Experience. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2000. Print.

Fong, Timothy. The Contemporary Asian American Experience: Beyond the Model Minority. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2008. Print.

Fong, T. P., & Shinagawa, L. H. (2000). Asian Americans: Experiences and perspectives. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

Tokuyama, Yukie. Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: A History Reader. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 2003.

Keyssar, Alexander. The Right to Vote: the Contested History of Democracy in the United States. New York: Basic Books, 2000

Novas, Himilce, Lan Cao, and Rosemary Silva. Everything You Need to Know about Asian-American History. New York, NY: Penguin Group, 2004. Print.

Ong, P. M., & Scott, M. E. (2009). Asian american civic and political engagement: Patterns, challenges, and potentials. Asian American Policy Review, 18, 25.

Takaki, Ronald. A History of Asian Americans: Strangers from a Different Shore. New York, NY: Hachette Book Groups, 1998. Print.

Wu, J. Y. S., & Song, M. (2000). Asian American studies: A reader. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Zhao, X., & Park, E. J. W. (2014). Asian Americans: An encyclopedia of social, cultural, economic, and political history. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood, an imprint of ABC-CLIO, LLC.

Zia, Helen. Asian American Dreams: The Emergence of an American People. Farrar, Straus and Giroux; 1st edition; May 15, 2001. Print.