Sources & Definitions



A person who favors the abolition of a practice or institution, especially capital punishment or (formerly) slavery


The process of becoming a citizen


An irrational fear of or prejudice against people from other countries. In the United States, this manifests as discrimination against immigrants, most often immigrants of color


Books and Journals

  • Keyssar, Alexander. “The Right to Vote: the contested history of democracy in the United States.” New York: Basic Books, 2000
  • Hoerder, Dirk, ed. “Labor Migration in the Atlantic Economies: The European and North American Working Classes During the Period of Industrialization (Westport, CT, 1985)” cited in Keyssar pp 82-83.
  • Schrag, Peter. Not Fit for Our Society: Nativism and Immigration. Berkley: University of California Press. 2010. (pull quote, page 34)
  • Hayduk, Ronald. "Democracy for All: Restoring Immigrant Voting Rights in the US." New Political Science 26.4 (2004): 499-523. Gale Cengage Expanded Academic ASAP.
  • Johnson, Hildegard Binder. "The Election of 1860 and the Germans in Minnesota." Minnesota History 28.1 (1947): 20-36.
  • Kane, Betty. "A Case Study in Lively Futility: The 1876 Legislature." Minnesota History 45.6 (1977): 223-40.
  • Kimball, Christopher W. “Norwegian Americans and the Politics of Dissent, 1880-1924” (Book Review). 53 Vol. , 1992.
  • Lynch, Ross. “Political History of Minnesota from the Origin of the Territory through the Second General Election, Held in September of 1850.” Minneapolis: U of Minnesota, 1921.
  • Nisbeth, Hugo. “Minnesota as seen by Travelers : A Swedish Visitor of the Early Seventies.” Eds. Roy W. (Roy Walfred) Swanson and Hugo Nisbeth. Saint Paul, Minn.]: Saint Paul, Minn. : Minnesota Historical Society, 1927.
  • Opoti, Nekessa. "English Only? Not in Minnesota History." Twin Cities Daily Planet. Twin Cities Media Alliance., 23 Aug. 2010.
  • Qualey, Carlton C. "MHS Collections: Diary of a Swedish Immigrant Horticulturist, 1855-1898." Minnesota History 43.2 (1972): 63-70.
  • Raskin, Jamin B. "Legal Aliens, Local Citizens: The Historical, Constitutional, and Theoretical Meanings of Alien Suffrage." University of Pennsylvania Law Review April 141.4 (1993): 1391-470. JSTOR.
  • Varsanyi, Monica W. "The Rise and Fall (and Rise?) of Non-Citizen Voting: Immigration and the Shifting Scales of Citizenship and Suffrage in the United States." Space and Polity 9.2 (2005): 113-34.
  • Zeidel, Robert F. "Knute Nelson and the Immigration Question: A Political Dilemma." Minnesota History 56.6 (1999): 328-44.
  • Rosberg, Gerald M. (April–May 1977), ”Aliens and Equal Protection: Why Not the Right to Vote?” 75, Michigan Law Review, p. 1099

Website and Online Resources