Sources & Definitions


American Civil Liberties Union

A nonpartisan, nonprofit organization whose stated mission is "to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States"

American Indian or Alaska Native

Refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America) and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment


A person sent or authorized to represent others, in particular an elected representative sent to a conference

Democratic National Convention

Meeting of delegates of the democratic party at the national level to select candidates for office and to decide party policy

Language-minority Provision

Requires that official documents (usually ballots) are available in the language of a minority group as well as in English


Advocating for certain changes in government by working directly with officials

Satellite Early Voting Booths

Places outside of normal polling stations where people can vote before election day


Delegates to party conventions that are automatically given a seat based on their status in the party

Tribal Gaming

The term used to describe Indian-owned gambling operations

White Earth Nation

A band of Chippewa now centered in northern Minnesota. There are seven Chippewa reservations in Minnesota



  • McCool, Daniel, Susan M. Olson, and Jennifer L. Robinson. Native Vote: American Indians, the Voting Rights Act, and the Right to Vote. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
  • McDonald, Laughlin. American Indians and the Fight for Equal Voting Rights. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 2010. For a list of suits by American Indians please see pp. 8-67.
  • Wilkins, David E.  and K. Tsianina Lomawaima. Uneven Ground: American Indian Sovereignty and Federal Law. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 2001.

Website and Online Resources