Sources & Definitions
Messages that are not backed by candidates and address campaigns in general
Manipulation of the boundaries of an electoral district so as to favor or harm one party or class
The process of becoming a citizen
The disparity in access to quality schools and the resources needed for all children to be academically successful
Political Action Committees (PACs)
Organizations aiming to raise and spend money in support of electoral candidates. Often represent common interests, such as business, labor or ideology
A ballot that will only be submitted if the voter presents a valid ID within a certain amount of time
When the borders of electoral districts (groups of voters) are redrawn
Organizations that can raise and spend unlimited amounts of money on a political candidate or cause, but cannot coordinate with the candidates that they support
Photo ID Laws
- Elections: Issues Related to State Voter Identification Laws. U.S. Government Accountability Office.
- Voter ID Laws Lower Turnout of Blacks, New Voters: Watchdog. The Washington Times.
- Study: Voter ID Laws Hit Minorities. Politico.
- Birth Certificates. Minnesota Department of Health.
- History of Voter ID. National Conference of State Legislatures.
- Lee, Suevon. Everything You’ve Ever Wanted to Know About Voter ID Laws. ProPublica.
- Bingham, Amy. Voter Fraud: Non-Existent Problem or Election-Threatening Epidemic? ABC News.
- Mann, Fred. Church Leaders Organize Voter Campaign, Denounce Kansas Voter ID Laws. The Wichita Eagle.
- Hiltzik, Michael. A Conservative Judge's Devastating take on why Voter ID laws are Evil. Los Angeles Times.
- Apuzzo, Matt. Students Joining Battle to Upend Laws on Voter ID. The New York Times.
- VRA for Today.
Negative and Misleading Advertisements
- Voters Say Election Full of Misleading and False Information. World Public Opinion.
- Research on Voter ID. Brennan Center for Justice.
- Brucato, Cyndy. Attack Ads from Super-sized Outside Groups Frustrate 'Outspent' Legislative Candidates. MinnPost.
- Do Negative Campaign Ads Work? This Nation.
- Lariscy, Ruthann. Why Negative Political Ads Work. CNN.
- Maguire, Robert. Ad Spending Tops $1 Billion; Dark Money Groups Buy Significant Share. OpenSecrets.
- Dark Money. League of Women Voters.
- Money in Politics. League of Women Voters Minnesota.
- We the People Amendment. Move to Amend.
Money in Politics
- Drutman, Lee. Why we still Need to Worry about Money in Politics. Washington Post.
- What Donald Trump can Teach us about Campaign Finance. MPR News.
- Money in Politics. Common Cause.
- McCutcheon v. FEC. Common Cause.
- Citizens United. Common Cause.
- Bierschbach, Briana and Alan Palazzolo. The Outsiders: How Big Money Flows Through Minnesota Elections. MinnPost.
- Howatt, Glenn. Minnesota Political Spending Concentrated in Few Hands. Star Tribune.
- Money in State Politics Report: Minnesota Fails Disclosure Test, Again. Star Tribune.
- State Campaign Finance Laws: An Overview. National Conference of State Legislatures.
Lack of Transportation
- Collins, Jon. Free Transit Rides on Tap for Election Day. MPR News.
- Request and Absentee Ballot. MN Votes.
- Voter Assistance and Resources. City of Minneapolis.
- Sturgis, Sam. Could Free Public Transit Get Americans to Voting Booths? City Lab.
Lack of Voting (Historically)
- Hsieh, Steven. 14 Disturbing Stats About Racial Inequality in American Public Schools. The Nation.
- McElwee, Sean. Why the Voting Gap Matters. Demos.
- Weeks, Daniel. Why Are the Poor and Minorities Less Likely to Vote? The Atlantic.
- Minnesota Needs to Eliminate Gerrymandering Now to Prevent What Happened in Wisconsin. MN Dem.
- Data Snapshot: Teacher Equity. U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights.
- Date Snapshot: College and Career Readiness. U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights.
- Date Snapshot: Early Childhood Education. U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights.
- Data Snapshot: School Discipline. U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights.
- What is the School-to-Prison Pipeline? American Civil Liberties Union.
- Opportunity Gap - Talking Points. Schott Foundation for Public Education.
Lack of Representation
- Hill, Steven. Why Does the US Still Have So Few Women in Office? The Nation.
- Johnson, Sara. Diversity in the 113th Congress Looks Pathetic When You Plot It On a Map. City Lab.
- Minnesota Legislature by Gender. Minnesota Legislature Reference Library.
- Minnesota Legislature by Race. Minnesota Legislature Reference Library.
Gerrymandering and Redistricting
- Redistricting. Office of Minnesota Secretary of State.
- Jarman, David. Minnesota Redistricting: Court Issues a Least-change Map. DailyKos.
- Fang, Lee. Gerrymandering Rigged the 2014 Elections for GOP Advantage. Moyers & Company.
- Redistricting in Minnesota. Ballotpedia.
- Teodorescu, Christina. No More Gerrymandering. The Crimson.
- Redistricting. National Conference of State Legislatures.