Sources & Definitions



Social marginalization happens when a group of people are denied equal and adequate opportunity to determine their treatment by the members of the broader society. It usually includes the lack of representation, recognition of rights and equal redistribution of resources and services

Secret Ballots

A method of voting that ensures that all votes are cast in secret, so that the voter is not influenced by any other individual, and at the time of voting no one else knows who the voter chose


Tenant farmers who give a part of each crop as rent

Sources & Additional Resources

Web Sources

Print Sources

  • Andrews, Elisha Benjamin, and James Alton James. ”History of the United States from the Earliest Discovery of America to the Present Time.” New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1912.
  • Edgar, Walter B. ”South Carolina: A History.” Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1998.
  • Escott, Paul D., and David R. Goldfield. Major “Problems in the History of the American South: The New South.” Vol. 2. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath, 1990. 179.
  • Foner, Eric. ”Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution,” 1863-1877. New York: Harper & Row, 1988.
  • Goldstone, Lawrence. ”Inherently Unequal: The Betrayal of Equal Rights by the Supreme Court, 1865-1903.” New York: Walker & Company, 2011.
  • Issacharaoff, Samuel, Pamela Karlan, and Richard Pildes. ”The Law of Democracy.” Foundation Press, 1998.
  • Johnson, Paul. ”A History of the American People.” New York, NY: Harper Collins, 1998.
  • Keyssar, Alexander. ”The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States.” New York: Basic Books, 2000. 105.
  • Kousser, J. Morgan. ”The Shaping of Southern Politics: Suffrage Restriction and the Establishment of the One-party South, 1880-1910.” New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974.