Sources & Definitions
Social marginalization happens when a group of people are denied equal and adequate opportunity to determine their treatment by the members of the broader society. It usually includes the lack of representation, recognition of rights and equal redistribution of resources and services
A method of voting that ensures that all votes are cast in secret, so that the voter is not influenced by any other individual, and at the time of voting no one else knows who the voter chose
Tenant farmers who give a part of each crop as rent
Sources & Additional Resources
- Neal, Thomas H. “The Compromise of 1877.” Learn North Carolina, (North Carolina in the Civil War and Reconstruction).
- "American Anti-Slavery and Civil Rights Timeline." US History
- Anderson, Elizabeth, and Jeffrey Jones. "Techniques of Direct Disenfranchisement, 1880-1965." Geography of Race in the United States.
- "Booker T. Washington." PBS: The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow.
- Civil Rights Movement Veterans. "Voting Rights Are You 'Qualified' to Vote? Take a "Literacy Test” to Find Out.” Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement -- Literacy Tests.
- Constitutional Rights Foundation. "Race and Voting in the Segregated South." Race and Voting.
- DuBois, W.E.B. "Niagara Movement Speech." Teaching American History.
- Encyclopedia Britannica. "Niagara Movement | American Civil Rights Organization." Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
- Greenberg, Sanford L. "WHITE PRIMARY." Texas State Historical Association.
- The King Center. "The Supreme Court Declares the White Primary in Georgia Unconstitutional." Martin Luther King Jr. and the Global Freedom Struggle.
- "Ku Klux Klan." History.com.
- Langeveld, Dirk. "Theodore G. Bilbo: Race to the End." The Downfall Dictionary (blog), September 18, 2011.
- Library of Congress. "Collection Civil Rights History Project." Voting Rights -- Civil Rights History Project.
- Library of Congress. ""The First Vote"" "The First Vote"
- Mother Jones. "Timeline: The Long History of Voter Suppression." Mother Jones: Politics: Civil Liberties. November 4, 2012.
- NAACP. "NAACP Legal History." NAACP History.
- National Archives. "The Constitution of the United States: Amendments 11-27." National Archives and Records Administration.
- National Museum of American History. "1899 North Carolina Literacy Test Requirement." The Object of History | Behind the Scenes with the Curators of the National Museum of American History.
- New Georgia Encyclopedia. "Segregation." History and Archaeology.
- "Niagara Movement." History.com.
- "Poll Tax." U.S. Slave. October 17, 2012.
- Rowan, Beth. "U.S. Voting Rights [timeline]." Infoplease.
- Smithsonian National Museum of American History. "White Only: Jim Crow in America - Separate Is Not Equal." Separate Is Not Equal - Brown v. Board of Education.
- Tarter, Brent. "Poll Tax." Encyclopedia Virginia.
- Tennessee State Library and Archives. "First Enforcement Act: Civil Rights Act of 1870." This Honorable Body: African American Legislators in 19th Century Tennessee.
- Texas State Historical Association. "The 20th Century." Texas Almanac.
- "United States Department of Defense." Defense.gov News Article: Servicemembers to Follow Long Absentee Voting Tradition. September 16, 2008.
- University of Washington. "The Ku Klux Klan In Washington State, 1920s." Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project.
- U.S. Department of Justice. "Introduction To Federal Voting Rights Laws." Civil Rights Division Home Page.
- Wormser, Richard. "Niagara Movement." PBS: The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow.
- Salvatore, Susan Cianci. “Civil Rights in American: Racial Voting Rights.” National Park Service.
- Andrews, Elisha Benjamin, and James Alton James. ”History of the United States from the Earliest Discovery of America to the Present Time.” New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1912.
- Edgar, Walter B. ”South Carolina: A History.” Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1998.
- Escott, Paul D., and David R. Goldfield. Major “Problems in the History of the American South: The New South.” Vol. 2. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath, 1990. 179.
- Foner, Eric. ”Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution,” 1863-1877. New York: Harper & Row, 1988.
- Goldstone, Lawrence. ”Inherently Unequal: The Betrayal of Equal Rights by the Supreme Court, 1865-1903.” New York: Walker & Company, 2011.
- Issacharaoff, Samuel, Pamela Karlan, and Richard Pildes. ”The Law of Democracy.” Foundation Press, 1998.
- Johnson, Paul. ”A History of the American People.” New York, NY: Harper Collins, 1998.
- Keyssar, Alexander. ”The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States.” New York: Basic Books, 2000. 105.
- Kousser, J. Morgan. ”The Shaping of Southern Politics: Suffrage Restriction and the Establishment of the One-party South, 1880-1910.” New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974.