Sources & Definitions


Affirmative action

policies that give favor (typically in employment and educational settings) to members of groups who have been historically disadvantaged due to discrimination and oppression

De facto segregation

racial segregation, such as in schools, neighborhoods, or public facilities, that is labelled as such because it is a fact, rather than the result of legal requirements like Jim Crow laws


Hatred, hostility, or prejudice against Muslims because of their religious practices


An irrational fear of or prejudice against people from other countries. In the United States, this manifests as discrimination against immigrants, most often immigrants of color

Sources & Additional Resources

Web Sources

Print Sources

Kassa, Amaha. Dimensions of the New Diaspora: African Immigrant Communities & Organizations in New York, Washington, D.C., and Atlanta, July 2013. Print.