Sources & Definitions
policies that give favor (typically in employment and educational settings) to members of groups who have been historically disadvantaged due to discrimination and oppression
De facto segregation
racial segregation, such as in schools, neighborhoods, or public facilities, that is labelled as such because it is a fact, rather than the result of legal requirements like Jim Crow laws
Hatred, hostility, or prejudice against Muslims because of their religious practices
An irrational fear of or prejudice against people from other countries. In the United States, this manifests as discrimination against immigrants, most often immigrants of color
Sources & Additional Resources
- Aslanian, Sarah. “Liberian Roots, Local Politics: Mayoral Hopeful Tests Diverse Suburb.” Minnesota Public Radio News, 27 October 2014:
- Bain, Tiffany K. Black Ethnics’ Perception and Reception of U.S. Political Messages: An Analysis of Microtargeting Efforts to Black Caribbean and Black African Cultural Identities. 28 April 2014.
- Bingham, Amy. “Voter Fraud: Non-Existent Problem or Election-Threatening Epidemic?” ABC News, 12 September 2012.
- Bray, Ilona. “When an Asylee or Refugee can Apply for U.S. Citizenship.” Nolo.
- Capps, Randy, Kristen McCabe, and Michael Fix. Diverse Streams: African Migration to the United States. Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute, 2012.
- Chadwick, Sabah. “A History of Liberia, its Conflicts, and its Minnesotan Diaspora.” Refugee & Immigrant Populations in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, 10 January 2006.
- Conteh, Jacob. “How African-Americans and African Immigrants Differ.” The Globalist, 16 November 2013.
- Fennelly, Katherine. “Latinos, Africans and, Asians in the North Star State: Immigrant Communities in Minnesota.” In Beyond the Gateway: Immigrants in a Changing America, eds. Elzbieta M. Gozdziak and Susan F. Martin. Lexington Books: 2005.
- Gambino, Christine P., Edward N. Trevelyan, and John Thomas Fitzwater. “The Foreign-Born Population from Africa: 2008–2012.” American Community Survey Briefs, October 2014.
- Grimes, Benoni Tarr. “Liberian Women’s Initiative – Minnesota Claims Victory over Police Women.” People to People: Liberian Online News.
- Hamed Aleaziz, Dave Gilson and Jaeah Lee.“UFO Sightings Are More Common Than Voter Fraud.” Mother Jones, July/August 2012.
- Hayduk, Ron. “Democracy for All? The Case for Restoring Immigrant Voting in the United States.” Immigrant Movement International, 2011.
- McCabe, Kristen. “African Immigrants in the United States.” Migration Policy Institute. July 21, 2011; Spotlight.
- Melo, Frederick. “Minnesota’s Early Voter Law Fueling Greater Turnout Effort.” Twin Cities, 30 October 2014.
- Mioni, Nina. “Ebola Fears Harm Business at Local West African Restaurant.” CBS Minnesota, 3 October 2014.
- “Population Trends.” Minnesota Compass, 2015.
- Prather, Shannon. “It’s émigré vs. Two-Term Mayor in Brooklyn Center.” Star Tribune, 31 October 2014:
- Russell, Wynfred. “Liberian Women’s Initiatives – Minnesota Screens Women, War, and Peace.” The Liberian Journal, 4 November 2011.
- Weiner, Jay. “Brooklyn Park, the Metro’s Most Diverse Suburb, Will Choose Its Mayor from 12 Diverse Candidates.” MinnPost, 21 April 2011.
- Akinde, Oluwatoyin Adenike. “Acculturation of Nigerian Immigrants in Minnesota.” Journal of Pan African Studies 6:6 (December 2013): 181-200.
- "The Lone Star: The Story of Liberia." PBS.
- "Founding of Liberia, 1874." U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian.
- Rodriguez, Leila. "The Transnational Political Involvement of Nigerian Immigrants in New York City: Motivations, Means and Constraints." University of Cincinnati Department of Anthropology.
- Walker, Drew. "Ghanaian Americans." Countries and their Cultures.
- Wells, Ken R. "Liberian Americans." Countries and their Cultures.
- "Americo-Liberians." BlackPast.org
- Sarkodie-Mensah. Kwasi. "Nigerian Americans." Countries and their Cultures.
Kassa, Amaha. Dimensions of the New Diaspora: African Immigrant Communities & Organizations in New York, Washington, D.C., and Atlanta, July 2013. Print.