Sources & Definitions


14th Amendment

Ratified on July 9, 1868; granted citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States,” which included former slaves recently freed

15th Amendment

Amendment to grant voting rights to African American men (ratified in 1870)

1882 Chinese Exclusion Act

A 10-year ban on Chinese labor immigration. It was the first major ethnic group immigration exclusion policy in U.S. History

19th Amendment

Passed in 1919, this Amendment gave women the right to vote, although African American and American Indian women still faced considerable barriers


Belief in the superiority of your own ethnic group. The belief that your own ethnic group is smarter than all other ethnic groups is an example of ethnocentrism

Expedient Tactic

A way of attaining a goal (suffrage), especially a tactic that is convenient but considered improper or immoral (it often brings up the question: do the ends justify the means?)

Gentleman's Agreement of 1907

An informal agreement between the U.S. and Japanese governments stopping the flow of Japanese immigrants


The introduction of big businesses with high-tech factories and production

Intersecting identities

As individuals, we are made up of many overlapping social identities, such as race, gender, class, (dis)ability, sexuality, etc. The study of the way these identities intersect and relate to systems of oppression is known as intersectionality

Jim Crow Laws

A practice or policy of segregating or discriminating against African Americans, as in public places, public vehicles or employment


Advocating for certain changes in government by working directly with officials


City or town

The Nadir

The "nadir of American race relations" was the period in the history of the Southern United States from the end of Reconstruction in 1877 through the early 20th century, when racism in the country was worse than in any other period after the American Civil War


Questions or policies that are put on a ballot for citizens to vote on directly


Anti-alcohol cause

Sources & Additional Resources

Print Sources

  • Terborg-Penn, Rosalyn. “African American Women in the Struggle for the Vote: 1850-1920.” Print.

Web Sources