Sources & Definitions
A model of gender that classifies all people into one of two genders. Under the binary model, gender is seen as a rigid binary option, like one or zero
Manipulation of the boundaries of an electoral constituency (voters) so as to favor one party or class
Politicians running for a position they already hold
Social marginalization happens when a group of people are denied equal and adequate opportunity to determine their treatment by the members of the broader society. It usually includes the lack of representation, recognition of rights and equal redistribution of resources and services
Questions or policies that are put on a ballot for citizens to vote on directly
Statewide Elective Office
Any state-level position that everyone in the state can vote on. For instance, a local representative does not count but the Governor and Secretary of State, among others, do count
Rules on how many times you can hold the same position
Websites and Online Resources
- 26 Stats About Women In Government. GovLoop.
- Baxter, Emily. The Excessive Political Power Of White Men In The United States, In One Chart. Think Progress, (Justice).
- Bump, Philip. The new Congress is 80 percent white, 80 percent male and 92 percent Christian. The Washington Post.
- Charleswell, Cherise. Disproportionate Representation: A Look at Women Leadership in Congress. The Hampton Institute, (Women’s Issues).
- Footnotes: A blog of the Center for American Women and Politics. Rutgers University, (Center for American Women and Politics).
- Gender Equality Explorer. Women’s Foundation of Minnesota.
- O’Neill, Terry. Women & Public Office: Why Young Women Should Run For Office & How They Can Win. B.A. Rudolph Foundation.
- Palmer, Barbara & Simon, Dennis. Breaking the Political Glass Ceiling: Women and Congressional Elections. Routledge, Nov 1, 2010.
- Resources and Fact Sheets. White House Council on Women and Girls.
- Seager, Joni & Olson, Ann. Women in the World: An International Atlas. University of Tennessee- Chattanooga, (Sarla R. Murgai).
- Women In State Legislatures For 2014. National Conference of State Legislatures, (Legislators).
- Women In State Legislatures For 2015. National Conference of State Legislatures, (Legislators).