Sources & Definitions



Rejection of the fight for political and social equality with whites in favor of developing job skills and a reputation for stability and dependability

Grandfather Clause

Literacy tests were a requirement for voting in Oklahoma, but the Oklahoma Constitution had an exception for voters whose grandfathers had either been eligible to vote prior to January 1, 1866 or were at that time a resident of  "some foreign nation", or were soldiers. The exception was meant to disfranchise Black voters, because most of their grandfathers had been slaves and therefore unable to vote before 1866 in Oklahoma.

Sources & Additional Resources

Web Sources