Sources & Definitions


Blanket Naturalization

Immediate citizenship for a large group of people

Citizenship Rights

1884 Supreme Court case Elk v. Wilkins affirmed that American Indians were “subjects” of the United States, meaning that even though they had been born within the borders of the newly formed United States they did not have automatic citizenship

Gold Rush (1848-1855)

Period of rapid migration to California after the discovery of gold in 1848, leading to exponential increases in population and economic growth in the region


Advocating for certain changes in government by working directly with officials

Manifest Destiny

A belief that American settlers were destined to expand and settle throughout the continent, stemming from religious, economic, and imperialistic ideals


Pushing a group of people to vote in a certain election or for a certain candidate or issue


Legal process through which citizenship is granted


Your “position” in social structures based on identities such as race, ethnicity, gender, class, sexual orientation, etc.

Statutory Citizenship

Type of citizenship with limited rights relative to natural-born or naturalized citizens

Unincorporated Territory

A piece of land owned by the United States that is not a state but is administered by an appointed or elected governor and elected legislature


Books and Journals

  • Diebold, Susan M. "The Mexicans." Ed. June Drenning. Holmquist. They Chose Minnesota: A Survey of the State's Ethnic Groups. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1981. Pg 92, 93, 104. Print.
  • Roethke, Leigh. Latino Minnesota. Afton, MN.: Afton Historical Society, 2007.  pg. 104 Print.
  • Gonzales Baker, Susan. "Su Voto Es Su Voz: Latino Political Empowerment and the Immigration Challenge." Political Science and Politics 29.3 (1996): 465-68. Print.
  • Jackson, Melinda S. "Priming the Sleeping Giant: The Dynamics of Latino Political Identity and Vote Choice." Political Psychology 32.4 (2011): 691-716. Print.
  • Valdés, Dennis Nodín. Barrios Norteños: St. Paul and Midwestern Mexican Communities in the Twentieth Century. Austin: U of Texas, 2000. Print.

Websites and Online Resources