Sources & Definitions


Electioneering Communications

Messages that are not backed by candidates and address campaigns in general


Manipulation of the boundaries of an electoral district so as to favor or harm one party or class


The process of becoming a citizen

Opportunity Gap

The disparity in access to quality schools and the resources needed for all children to be academically successful

Political Action Committees (PACs)

Organizations aiming to raise and spend money in support of electoral candidates. Often represent common interests, such as business, labor or ideology

Provisional Ballot

A ballot that will only be submitted if the voter presents a valid ID within a certain amount of time


When the borders of electoral districts (groups of voters) are redrawn

Super PACs

Organizations that can raise and spend unlimited amounts of money on a political candidate or cause, but cannot coordinate with the candidates that they support


Photo ID Laws

Language Barriers

Negative and Misleading Advertisements

Money in Politics

Lack of Transportation

Lack of Voting (Historically)

Educational Inequities

Lack of Representation

Gerrymandering and Redistricting