Sources & Definitions
Rejection of the fight for political and social equality with whites in favor of developing job skills and a reputation for stability and dependability
Literacy tests were a requirement for voting in Oklahoma, but the Oklahoma Constitution had an exception for voters whose grandfathers had either been eligible to vote prior to January 1, 1866 or were at that time a resident of "some foreign nation", or were soldiers. The exception was meant to disfranchise Black voters, because most of their grandfathers had been slaves and therefore unable to vote before 1866 in Oklahoma.
Sources & Additional Resources
- Baker, Lee D. “Ida B. Wells-Barnett: Fighting and Writing for Justice.” State Department’s Bureau of International Information Programs.
- Christianson, Stephen G. “Plessy v. Ferguson: 1896.” Law Library - American Law and Legal Information.
- “Eleanor Roosevelt.” Bio.
- “Harry S. Truman Biographical Sketch.” Harry S. Truman Library & Museum.
- National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
- “Records of the President’s Committee on Civil Rights Record Group 220.” Harry S. Truman Library & Museum.
- “Springfield Race Riot.” Encyclopedia Britannica, (United States history).
- “The Cold War.” John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, (JFK, JFK in History).
- Wormser, Richard. “Jim Crow Stories: Booker T Washington.” Public Broadcast Service, (The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow).
- Wormser, Richard. “Jim Crow Stories: Niagara Movement.” Public Broadcast Service, (The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow).
- Wormser, Richard. “Jim Crow Stories: W.E.B. Du Bois.” Public Broadcast Service, (The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow).
- Crosby, Emilye. “The Selma Voting Rights Struggle: 15 Key Points from Bottom-Up History and Why it Matters Today.” Teaching for Change.